Nested 'red, green, refactor'

Red, green, refactor ?

When writing code I generally like to use TDD and follow: “red, green, refactor”.

And then I loop over this process whilst adding behaviours to the code.

Nested ?

Recently I’ve been learning rust and writing some elmlang at work. Both of these languages have a decent type system and a focus on providing friendly error messages from the compiler. I’ve started to find myself doing the following once I’ve written my failing test:

Once I’ve done this I go back to my test and check that it’s green too. I’m then back to following my TDD red, green, refactor at the test level.

diagram showing nested red, green, refactor loops

Do I still need the TDD part?

In my view: yes. Both levels of this loop bring value to me. The compiler driven loop really helps me where I’ve tried to do something impossible with my input types or where I’ve not handled an error condition that I should (this is especially true in rust - it has no exceptions so errors must be handled).

However, the compiler can’t tell me if my functions actually do what I intended them to do. The following example code would be “green” in my compiler driven loop, the types are all good:

pub fn add(a: i32, b: i32) -> i32 {
    a - b

but the mistake in the above is easily revealed by the following test:

// Left:  -1
// Right: 3
// <Click to see difference>
// thread 'day_05::replacer::tests::test_add' panicked 
// at 'assertion failed: `(left == right)`
//   left: `-1`,
//  right: `3`', src/day_05/
fn test_add() {
    assert_eq!(add(1, 2), 3)

I also really value TDD for helping me design better interfaces for my functions. If I start with a test case I’m much less likely to write:

fn test_add() {
    let adder = Adder::new();
    let result = adder.extract_result();
    assert_eq!(result, 3)

Using the TDD level of the loop makes me the first consumer of my API. I find out straight away if the code is easy to use.

There are tests I would skip in more statically & strongly typed languages. One example of this is negative numbers. In a language (like python for example) where it’s not possible to, easily, express the type “positive integer” I would be adding tests around negative numbers. In rust I wouldn’t need it as the following doesn’t compile:

fn main() {
    let oops = -1;
    //  ^^ the trait `std::ops::Neg` is not implemented for `u32`

fn print_a_non_negative_number(a: u32) {
    println!("{}", a)

I’ve really been enjoying the extra level of immediate feedback a compiler with friendly error messages provides, and I look forward to doing more compiler driven development.

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